The Main Steps Involved in Project Management
- In traditional, linear Project Management methodologies, projects are usually broken down into five discrete phases: Initiation, Planning, Execution, Monitoring and Closing.
- Completing each of these phases successfully and at the right time is instrumental in project success and return on investment.
The Project Management Institute (PMI) breaks down the life cycle of a project into five specific “process groups” that need to be performed in a sequential way. According to industry best practices, following these 5 phases (Initiating, Planning, Executing, Controlling, and Closing) is key to manage and deliver projects successfully. Let’s explore each one of them.
According to PMI, the initiation phase is the first step of the journey that’ll turn a project idea into an actual product, service or system. This stage requires putting together a business case and providing a high-level description of the rationale behind the project, the challenges and opportunities it is supposed to address, the strategic directions it aligns with, its goals and its overall scope, its estimated budget and timeline. The findings may be consolidated into a project charter to facilitate communication with the stakeholders and decision-makers who’ll be required to give the project the final green light.
Project initiating also involves formally identifying the Project Manager and the key team members who are to be involved in the project, along with their respective roles. The project initiation phase does not, however, include any specific technical details regarding the requirements or the deliverables.
The initiation phase has provided a broad outline of the scope of the project. The planning phase is where you’ll be getting into the thick of it. Project Managers need to detail the scope of the project, its description and summary, its key milestones, and its cost and time estimates — from which they’ll be able to derive a schedule for execution. The scope, cost and schedule thus defined should come with clear baselines to enable monitoring and tracking in the next phases.
The resulting roadmap should include provisions and strategies for what might go wrong (in other words, the risks) and provide a management framework for the project (e.g. governance, communication, reporting and quality control mechanisms).
The project planning phase is also where Project Managers formalize a detailed timeline for delivery, a work breakdown structure, the definition of specific and measurable goals, and a mapping of all technical requirements.
At the end of the planning phase, the Project Manager and the project team should have a clear notion of what success looks like, but also of the key conditions to be met to ensure successful completion and delivery. In most cases, the project planning phase is by far the longest and the most delicate of the whole process.
Preparation and planning are indisputably key phases in Project Management. But, in order for your organization’s project activity and investment to deliver any outcomes, project work should actually get done! That’s the purpose of the executing stage. Here, the various individuals that make up the project team will start producing the deliverables based on the roadmap, timeline, and overall plans defined and communicated by the Project Manager at the closing of the planning phase. Although they’re usually not involved in deliverable production, Project Managers have a key role to play in this phase. They are tasked with making sure that everything remains on track to successful delivery. This includes managing the team, solving potential misunderstandings or conflicts, cultivating a collaboration-conducive atmosphere and maintaining engagement, and making sure that the workflows are efficient. A key Project Management challenge during the execution phase is the incorporation of change requests from stakeholders — such as sponsors, clients or project owners. The execution phase is typically the one that consumes the bulk of a project’s budget.
Project Monitoring and Controlling
Getting the work done is not enough. Project Managers need to ensure that the initiative will effectively meet the requirements and deliver the expected benefits for the organization.
To that end, they’ll closely monitor the progress of execution, assess performance and alignment with objectives and baselines, and possibly make all the necessary changes to correct the course.
This involves tracking a number of metrics and key performance indicators across multiple areas: comparing the actual cost and resource consumption against estimates and budget, making sure that tasks are completed within the agreed upon deadline, seeing to it that deliverables are ready for Quality Assurance checks and possibly for gate reviews, liaising with other Project Managers or Resource Managers to anticipate the impact of delays in other, related initiatives, and more.
That monitoring and controlling phase is concurrent with project execution.
As the name indicates, this final phase is about formally closing the project after releasing the deliverables and securing client acceptance. The importance of this stage is too often overlooked, as a result of which organizations end up with “loose ends”: unterminated contracts with external resources, unarchived data, etc. This phase usually involves holding a formal closing meeting with the team to look back on the course and performance of the project, consolidating and archiving the lessons learned into a repository that can be accessed by other Project Managers for future reference, and completing a detailed summary report. And, perhaps most importantly… Don’t forget to celebrate with your team!